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Application Notes from Texas Instruments

Common Noise Issues in Audio Codecs

Texas Instruments

This application note describes methods that can be used to improve noise performance in systems using audio codecs. Noise is present in all circuit board systems; however, common design practices can help minimize overall noise contribution to improve the audio quality using audio codecs. Recommendations in this document apply to the TLV320AICxxxx, TLV320ADCxxxx, and TLV320DACxxxx audio converter families. Some information in this document may be used to reduce noise in other audio converter devices as well.

Transient Response versus Ripple - An Analysis of Ripple Injection Techniques

Texas Instruments

In this application note we highlight the implications of ripple injection techniques, aimed at minimizing output ripple voltage, on the transient response of a supply. The results help choose a suitable ripple injection technique after striking a balance between the output ripple voltage and the transient response required by the load.

A USB-Powered Lithium-Ion Battery Charger

Texas Instruments

The Universal Serial Bus has become one of the most widespread and convenient ways to connect electronic devices to the PC. Countless modern portable products with built-in USB connectors readily use the USB data bus to transmit and receive data to and from PCs, but many of these battery-powered units still use a separate power supply for battery charging (often a charging cradle or a simple AC/DC converter). Sometimes overshadowed by its data bus partner, each USB connection also contains a power bus. With a maximum power rating 5.25V/500 mA, the USB power bus is a great source for charging a single-cell Lithium-Ion battery.

Design Considerations for LM5113 Advanced eGaN FET Driver at High Frequency Operation

Texas Instruments

The LM5113 device is designed to drive the high-side and low-side enhancement mode Gallium Nitride (GaN) FETs in a half-bridge configuration. The floating high-side gate is capable of driving enhancement mode GaN FETs up to 100 V. Used with the DSBGA package the LM5113 device is especially suited for high-frequency operation. Care must be taken at high-frequency operation to ensure that adequate thermal design tolerance is present for the worst-case driver power dissipation. Furthermore, a good understanding of the driver losses for different load mechanisms is very helpful in estimating the on die power loss in the GaN driver. This application report demonstrates the operation of LM5113 device at high-frequency for hard-switching and soft-switching applications. It also provides an estimate of the losses in the driver based on calculations and an analytical approach.

DMD 101: Introduction to Digital Micromirror Device (DMD) Technology (Rev. A)

Texas Instruments

This document describes the basic structure and operation of the digital micromirror device (DMD) array.

This document covers the basic structure and operation of DMD devices. The DMD is a unique combination of opto-mechanical and electro-mechanical elements. The journey begins with understanding how one pixel works and building on that to encompass the entire array of pixels that comprise a DMD.

Implementation of a Low-Cost Three-Phase Watt-Hour Meter Using the MSP430F67641 (Rev. C)

Texas Instruments

This application report describes the implementation of a low-cost three-phase electronic electricity meter using the Texas Instruments MSP430F67641 metering processor. This application report includes the necessary information with regard to metrology software and hardware procedures for this single-chip implementation.

How to Design an LED Driver Using the TPS92510 (Rev. A)

Texas Instruments

This design example consists of a single string of ten LEDs driven with 1-A forward current. This design example is a supplement to the TPS92510 data sheet and provides step-by-step instructions for optimizing an LED driver design. In particular, detailed attention is given to compensating and measuring the feedback loop, implementing the thermal foldback protection, and designing the printed-circuit board layout. Graphs are provided showing the design example test data.

UCC28070 Implement Bridgeless PFC Pre-Regulator Design

Texas Instruments

Bridgeless power factor correction (PFC) topology is attracting attention as a means of satisfying the new high-efficiency requirements. This application report reviews the UCC28070 and its design considerations for bridgeless PFC. It present a bridgeless solution that is relatively easy to implement in that it does not require any additional circuitry for current sensing and that the operation remains very similar to that of a conventional concinuous condustion mode (CCM) PFC.

MSP432 Debugging Tools: Using Serial Wire Output With CCS Trace Analyzer (Rev. A)

Texas Instruments

This application note introduces an ARM hardware-based debugging tool, Serial Wire Output (SWO) Trace. The discussion starts with background information on what happens at a hardware level, to explain what the many capabilities are. Then, it focuses on how the tools are implemented in the TI Code Composer Studio (CCS) integrated development environment (IDE), compared to other IDEs.

In CCS, the SWO Trace tools are presented in the form of three main use cases: Statistical Function Profiling, Data Variable Tracing, and Interrupt Profiling. A fourth, Custom Core Trace, lets the user customize what triggers are set and what events are recorded by the hardware.

This application note explains how to use SWO Trace in CCS (called Hardware Trace Analyzer), demonstrate with a simple Out of Box example, and explain further configuration and customization. By using this application note as a guide, users should be able to implement the Hardware Trace Analyzer debugging tools in CCS to view the large projects in smaller parts to fully understand what is happening.

TPA3136D2 Design Considerations for EMC

Texas Instruments

The TPA3136D2 Class D audio power amplifier is the latest TI analog input amplifier that uses advancedPWM switching techniques for reducing electromagnetic interference (EMI) without degrading audioperformance. This application note describes the system design and printed circuit board (PCB) guidelinesused to maximize the technology employed in the TPA3136D2 device. These techniques include the EMIsuppression without the need for expensive inductor filters and the reduction of external component count.

Understanding and Designing an Active Clamp Current Mode Controlled Converter

Texas Instruments

The UCC2897A Current Mode Active Clamp PWM Controller offers a highly integrated feature set resulting in precision control required for an active clamp forward or flyback converter. The UCC2897A data sheet contains all the design details necessary for accurately programming the device. However, there are significant design considerations and trade-offs unique to the active clamp power stage that must be defined prior to setting up the control device. Using the active clamp forward topology as an example, the clamp, power stage and control loop compensation is detailed in the following application note, which is intended to complement the information presented in the UCC2897A data sheet. This information is also applicable to the UCC2891/2/3 and 4.

Build high density, high refresh rate, multiplexing LED panel with TLC5958

Texas Instruments

This application report describes how to build high-density, high refresh rate, multiplexing panel with the TLC5958; a 48 channel, 16-bit ES-PWM LED driver with pre-charge FET, LED open detection and display data memory supporting 32-multiplexing.

IWR1642 Bootloader Flow

Texas Instruments

This application report describes the IWR1642 bootloader flow.

The IWR1642 device can be broadly split into three subsystems, as follows:

  • Master subsystem: ARM Cortex-R4F and associated peripherals, hosts the user application
  • DSP subsystem: TI C674x and associated peripherals, hosts the user application
  • Radar/Millimetre Wave Block: Programmed using predefined message transactions specified by TI (reference driver provided by TI)

Wireless Motion Detector With Sub-1 GHz SimpleLink Wireless MCU

Texas Instruments

This application note discusses the main challenges related to wireless motion detector design and how they are addressed by the SimpleLink Sub-1 GHz CC1310 and SimpleLink Dual-band CC1350 wireless MCUs. First, the application note gives a short overview of a wireless motion detector. Then the application report discusses the wireless technology requirements which must be met to support motion detector use cases and explains why Sub-1 GHz technology is an excellent fit.

This application note explains how to build the system based on the SimpleLink CC1310 Sub-1 GHz wireless MCU or the SimpleLink CC1350 dual-band wireless MCU, with focus on low power, networking, and cloud connectivity, as well as Sub-1 GHz and Bluetooth low energy use cases. The document concludes by describing a potential use case, including its state machine and power consumption analysis.

DLP Spectrometer Design Considerations

Texas Instruments

DLP technology enables new functionality, performance, and tradeoffs in spectrometer design. For an overview of spectroscopy and how DLP compares to existing technologies, please see the DLP Technology for Spectroscopy white paper. In order to take advantage of the many benefits of DLP technology in your spectrometer design, several key factors and algorithms must be considered.

This application report describes the operational theory of a DLP spectrometer, discusses key component and system tradeoffs, and describes algorithms which are integral to obtaining accurate spectral output.

Improved Thermal Dissipation and Energy Efficiency for Peripheral Driving

Texas Instruments

The ULN2003A has long been a popular device used for driving high-current peripheral circuits from microcontroller and control logic output signals. The ULN2003A consists of seven Darlington bipolar transistors which sink current from the output to ground when a high logic signal is placed on the input. Because the ULN2003A is based on bipolar Darlington transistor topology, it dissipates a considerable amount of power even when it sinks small output currents.

The TPL7407L is a new peripheral driver that uses an N-channel MOSFET transistor on the output instead of the bipolar Darlington pair. Because of the NMOS output, the TPL7407L can sink more current to ground while dissipating less power and generating less heat which makes it an overall improved device compared to the ULN2003A. This application note explains how the CMOS technology in the TPL7407L improves power dissipation and thermal performance compared to the ULN2003A, including a 50% reduction in power consumption in typical use cases.

How to Calculate the Output Voltage Ranges of the Charge Pumps in the TPS65150

Texas Instruments

This application report tells you how to estimate the output voltage range of the charge pumps in the TPS65150. It assumes that the output current from each charge pump is 25 mA, or less. This application report was written specifically for the TPS65150, but the principles in it are applicable to all devices that use the same charge-pump topology.

Hardware Design Considerations for an Electric Bicycle using BLDC Motor

Texas Instruments

A traditional bicycle is a two-wheel vehicle that is propelled by the rider who delivers muscle power through pedals that rotate one of the two wheels. The rider steers the front wheel to create a force that returns and maintains the vehicle center of gravity into a stable zone whenever necessary, thus keeping the bicycle upright. An electric bicycle carries batteries that deliver electric power to a motor that is coupled to either wheel. In most electric bicycles the rider can chose to use muscle power to deliver all, part, or none of the propulsion power required to maintain an adopted travel speed. Some models even sense pedal pressure and command the motor to deliver more power whenever the rider pedals harder.

Introduction to the Controller Area Network (CAN) (Rev. B)

Texas Instruments

A Controller Area Network (CAN) is ideally suited to the many high-level industrial protocols embracing CAN and ISO-11898:2003 as their physical layer. Its cost, performance, and upgradeability provide for tremendous flexibility in system design. This application report presents an introduction to the CAN fundamentals, operating principles, and the implementation of a basic CAN bus with TI's CAN transceivers and DSPs. The electrical layer requirements of a CAN bus are discussed along with the importance of the different features of a TI CAN transceiver.

Example Temperature Measurement Applications Using the ADS1247 and ADS1248 (Rev. B)

Texas Instruments

This document discusses the use of the ADS1247 and ADS1248 precision analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) together with a resistive temperature device (RTD) and thermocouple to measure temperature. Included are detailed examples of the most common configurations of a two-wire RTD, a three-wire RTD, a four-wire RTD, and a thermocouple with cold junction compensation. This document provides sufficient information to enable several alternate configurations to be implemented.

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