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Application Notes from Texas Instruments

How to Develop a Project with TI SYS/BIOS

Texas Instruments

TI SYS/BIOS is a real-time operating system kernel. It is also a component of TI RTOS. TI RTOS is an integration system; it includes TI SYS/BIOS kernel, XDCtools, middleware, MCU driver library, and other kinds of components.

TI-RTOS is a one-stop solution for developing applications for TI embedded processors and is tightly integrated with TI’s Code Composer Studio™ (CCS) development environment.

TI-RTOS also provides many example project packages with which you may start to develop a project with TI SYS/BIOS.

IWR1642 Bootloader Flow

Texas Instruments

This application report describes the IWR1642 bootloader flow.

The IWR1642 device can be broadly split into three subsystems, as follows:

  • Master subsystem: ARM Cortex-R4F and associated peripherals, hosts the user application
  • DSP subsystem: TI C674x and associated peripherals, hosts the user application
  • Radar/Millimetre Wave Block: Programmed using predefined message transactions specified by TI (reference driver provided by TI)

Wireless Motion Detector With Sub-1 GHz SimpleLink Wireless MCU

Texas Instruments

This application note discusses the main challenges related to wireless motion detector design and how they are addressed by the SimpleLink Sub-1 GHz CC1310 and SimpleLink Dual-band CC1350 wireless MCUs. First, the application note gives a short overview of a wireless motion detector. Then the application report discusses the wireless technology requirements which must be met to support motion detector use cases and explains why Sub-1 GHz technology is an excellent fit.

This application note explains how to build the system based on the SimpleLink CC1310 Sub-1 GHz wireless MCU or the SimpleLink CC1350 dual-band wireless MCU, with focus on low power, networking, and cloud connectivity, as well as Sub-1 GHz and Bluetooth low energy use cases. The document concludes by describing a potential use case, including its state machine and power consumption analysis.

DLP Spectrometer Design Considerations

Texas Instruments

DLP technology enables new functionality, performance, and tradeoffs in spectrometer design. For an overview of spectroscopy and how DLP compares to existing technologies, please see the DLP Technology for Spectroscopy white paper. In order to take advantage of the many benefits of DLP technology in your spectrometer design, several key factors and algorithms must be considered.

This application report describes the operational theory of a DLP spectrometer, discusses key component and system tradeoffs, and describes algorithms which are integral to obtaining accurate spectral output.

Improved Thermal Dissipation and Energy Efficiency for Peripheral Driving

Texas Instruments

The ULN2003A has long been a popular device used for driving high-current peripheral circuits from microcontroller and control logic output signals. The ULN2003A consists of seven Darlington bipolar transistors which sink current from the output to ground when a high logic signal is placed on the input. Because the ULN2003A is based on bipolar Darlington transistor topology, it dissipates a considerable amount of power even when it sinks small output currents.

The TPL7407L is a new peripheral driver that uses an N-channel MOSFET transistor on the output instead of the bipolar Darlington pair. Because of the NMOS output, the TPL7407L can sink more current to ground while dissipating less power and generating less heat which makes it an overall improved device compared to the ULN2003A. This application note explains how the CMOS technology in the TPL7407L improves power dissipation and thermal performance compared to the ULN2003A, including a 50% reduction in power consumption in typical use cases.

How to Calculate the Output Voltage Ranges of the Charge Pumps in the TPS65150

Texas Instruments

This application report tells you how to estimate the output voltage range of the charge pumps in the TPS65150. It assumes that the output current from each charge pump is 25 mA, or less. This application report was written specifically for the TPS65150, but the principles in it are applicable to all devices that use the same charge-pump topology.

Hardware Design Considerations for an Electric Bicycle using BLDC Motor

Texas Instruments

A traditional bicycle is a two-wheel vehicle that is propelled by the rider who delivers muscle power through pedals that rotate one of the two wheels. The rider steers the front wheel to create a force that returns and maintains the vehicle center of gravity into a stable zone whenever necessary, thus keeping the bicycle upright. An electric bicycle carries batteries that deliver electric power to a motor that is coupled to either wheel. In most electric bicycles the rider can chose to use muscle power to deliver all, part, or none of the propulsion power required to maintain an adopted travel speed. Some models even sense pedal pressure and command the motor to deliver more power whenever the rider pedals harder.

Introduction to the Controller Area Network (CAN) (Rev. B)

Texas Instruments

A Controller Area Network (CAN) is ideally suited to the many high-level industrial protocols embracing CAN and ISO-11898:2003 as their physical layer. Its cost, performance, and upgradeability provide for tremendous flexibility in system design. This application report presents an introduction to the CAN fundamentals, operating principles, and the implementation of a basic CAN bus with TI's CAN transceivers and DSPs. The electrical layer requirements of a CAN bus are discussed along with the importance of the different features of a TI CAN transceiver.

Example Temperature Measurement Applications Using the ADS1247 and ADS1248 (Rev. B)

Texas Instruments

This document discusses the use of the ADS1247 and ADS1248 precision analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) together with a resistive temperature device (RTD) and thermocouple to measure temperature. Included are detailed examples of the most common configurations of a two-wire RTD, a three-wire RTD, a four-wire RTD, and a thermocouple with cold junction compensation. This document provides sufficient information to enable several alternate configurations to be implemented.

OPT3001: Ambient Light Sensor Application Guide

Texas Instruments

Electronic devices that use light sensors are becoming much more prevalent. Devices ranging from outdoor lighting to display backlighting use a light sensor to alter lighting conditions or lighting control based on the ambient lighting of the scene. The OPT3001 is an ambient light sensor (ALS) that is designed to have a similar spectral response to that of the human eye. This application report describes how to integrate the OPT3001 into an optical system that best enhances the human experience. This document describes how to calculate the proper sizing of a window and compensate for the added effects of translucent material.

Sensored 3-Phase BLDC Motor Control Using MSP430

Texas Instruments

Brushless DC (BLDC) motors are electronically commutated motors that offer many advantages over brushed DC motors and, therefore, are becoming very popular industrially and commercially. This application report discusses a sensored 3-phase BLDC motor control solution using MSP430 as the motor controller. Hall sensors are used to detect the rotor position and close the commutation loop. Both open loop and closed-loop control implementations are discussed.

Designing Overcurrent protection for TPL7407L Peripheral Driver

Texas Instruments

Microcontroller units (MCUs) are generally limited with lower drive on the I/Os. Most of the applications requiring MCU boards to drive high-current loads need discrete implementation and additional components, which use a lot of board space. This board space is called a peripheral driver section. The TPL7407L device is an integrated peripheral driver with seven channel drivers inside. The TPL7407L device is a higher performance version of popular ULN2003 drivers. The TPL7407L device does not have overcurrent protection. For markets such as industrial and automotive, short and overcurrent protection features are imperative for a device. This application report shows some examples of designing with the TPL7407L device for high-current applications, including the overcurrent protection for the circuit without the use of external current sense.

Implementation of FSK Modulation and Demodulation using CD74HC4046A

Texas Instruments

In telecommunications and signal processing, frequency modulation (FM) is encoding of information on a carrier wave by varying the instantaneous frequency of the wave. Digital data can be encoded and transmitted via carrier wave by shifting the carrier's frequency among a predefined set of frequencies—a technique known as frequency-shift keying (FSK). FSK is widely used in modems, radio-teletype and fax modems, and can also be used to send Morse code.

Frequency-shift keying (FSK) is a frequency modulation scheme in which digital information is transmitted through discrete frequency changes of a carrier wave. This application report discusses logiclevel implementation of binary FSK (BFSK) modulator and demodulator using a phase-locked loop PLL device – CD54HC4046A, CD54HCT4046A, CD74HC4046A, and CD74HCT4046A (hereafter in this document referred to as HC/HCT4046A). BFSK is the simplest FSK, using a pair of discrete frequencies to transmit binary information.

TPS65633 Increased Output Current

Texas Instruments

This application note describes the operating conditions over which the VELVDD and VELVSS outputs of the TPS65633 can support output currents up to 500 mA.

I2C Communication Sample Code for the bq76940 with CRC Based on the MSP430 (Rev. B)

Texas Instruments

This application note describes how to communicate with the bq76940 family devices over I2C. The code is based on the TI MSP430G2553. The code shows how to write the CRC function which is used to verify the transaction integrity over the I2C and how to initialize the I2C engine of the G2553 and bq76940 registers as well as how to read binary data from the AFE registers and transfer the data to voltages.

How delta-sigma ADCs work, Part 1

Texas Instruments

Analog techniques have dominated signal processing for years, but digital techniques are slowly encroaching into this domain. The design of delta-sigma (DS) analog-todigital converters (ADCs) is approximately three-quarters digital and one-quarter analog. DS ADCs are now ideal for converting analog signals over a wide range of frequencies, from DC to several megahertz. Basically, these converters consist of an oversampling modulator followed by a digital/ decimation filter that together produce a high-resolution data-stream output.

This two-part article will look closely at the DS ADC’s core. Part 1 will explore the basic topology and function of the DS modulator, and Part 2 will explore the basic topology and function of the digital/decimation filter module.

Liquid Level Sensing with the Immersive Straw Approach

Texas Instruments

The conventional and Out-of-Phase (OoP) liquid level sensing techniques are typically implemented for direct sensing or remote sensing applications. Sensors directly in contact with the liquid container maximize the performance of the system with minimizing sensor size, while remote sensing allows flexibility in system design. There are situations in which both of these sensor locations can exhibit false deviations in capacitance measurements from uncompensated environmental factors or the mechanical design does not allow direct/remote sensing. The immersive straw approach involves submerging the sensors directly in the liquid. The following application note describes the sensor design and compares the performance to direct and remote sensing applications.

UART Bootloader for Hercules RM48 MCU

Texas Instruments

This application report describes how to communicate with the Hercules UART bootloader. The UART bootloader is a small piece of code that can be programmed at the beginning of Flash to act as an application loader as well as an update mechanism for applications running on a Hercules Cortex-R4 based RM48x microcontroller.

Wave Digital Filtering Using the MSP430

Texas Instruments

Digital filtering is an integral part of many digital signal processing algorithms. Digital filters are characterized as either recursive [infinite impulse response (IIR)] or non-recursive [finite impulse response (FIR)] filters. IIR filters require a smaller order for the same set of specifications compared to FIR filters, while FIR filters provide a linear phase property. However, IIR filters, if not designed properly, tend to be unstable and use coefficients that are difficult to implement. This application report discusses the design of a certain type of IIR digital filter with excellent stability properties, known as a Lattice Wave Digital Filter (LWDF), given a set of analog filter specifications. An elementary knowledge of filters is sufficient to understand the design of LWDF as discussed in this report. The complete design of the basic filters (low-pass, high-pass, and band-pass) is given with examples. Code that implements these LWDFs on the MSP430 CPU is provided with this report.

Power Cycling an IoT System with a Nano-power System Timer

Texas Instruments

Reducing power and cost are often two of the most crucial factors when designing a battery-powered system. Reducing power consumption plays an in important role to extend system life by reducing overall system current. Hence, as a result, power reduction paves the way to cut down system cost by reducing the required battery capacity.

This concept readily applies to Internet of Things (IoT) systems and connected products such as wearables, wireless sensors and building automation systems. The life of the growing number of wireless sensor endnodes in the system all are constrained by one thing: power consumption of the end-node. Such sensor end nodes are typically powered by batteries, which last from several months to several years, depending on the power consumption of each end node. Here the “shelf-life” of a given sensor node is purely dependent on the lifetime of the battery. Though it is possible to simply replace the battery towards the end of the node’s life, it is not always practical to do so as the replacement itself can become an expensive “total cost of ownership."

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