Power-hungry electronic components such as processor chips, field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs), as well as power ICs heat up during operation. When the system is turned on, the heat generated by these ICs transfers to lower temperature objects nearby. Measuring ambient air temperature with a surface mount device can be challenging because heat transfer from components on the same PCB can influence and interfere with the ambient air temperature reading of the sensor. To maintain accuracy in applications that require ambient air temperature measurement, it is important to follow good layout techniques such as understanding the dominant thermal path, isolating the island surrounded by the package, and keeping the device as far away from interfering heat sources as possible. This application note will focus on layout strategies to overcome off-board (ambient air) temperature sensing challenges encompassing many applications. It details recommended layout techniques for accurate measurement of ambient air temperature with a temperature sensor in a plastic package, such as the TMP116 or TMP117. The application note includes measurement data of the TMP116 ambient air temperature measurement, and the LMT70 which is used as a reference to the temperature sensor to distinguish between air temperature measurement and the interference from a nearby heat source.
This application report documents ways to increase the available random access memory (RAM) for your application on the CC2640R2F SimpleLink™ Bluetooth low energy microcontroller. By moving initialized data or compiled code from the SRAM into other parts of the memory, the available SRAM is increased. This application report also highlights some of the tools found in the SimpleLink CC2640R2 software development kit (SDK) that enables optimization of the RAM used by heap and stack memory. Note that the features described in this document are not profiled in terms of power consumption or processor speed.
Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) is the treatment of choice for obstructive sleep apnea. With the evolution of telehealth and telemedicine, CPAP devices with wireless connectivity are solving problems like lack of comfort and difficulties in usage that have been the most common reasons for poor CPAP adherence in the past. A connected CPAP device can use various wireless communication technologies like Wi-Fi, Bluetooth® Low Energy and cellular network to obtain internet connectivity.
This application report describes the Wi-Fi use case for a connected CPAP implementation. It also describes the development of Wi-Fi enabled CPAP machine using the SimpleLink Wi-Fi CC3220 Wireless MCU or CC3120 Wi-Fi Network Processor.
Thermal design is an important consideration in any power electronic converters. An optimized thermal design enables engineers to use GaN in a wide range of power levels, topologies, and applications. This application note discusses the most important tradeoffs and considerations for TI’s LMG341XRxxx GaN power stage family, including guidance for PCB layout, thermal interface, heat sink selection and mounting methods. Examples of designs using 50-m Ω and 70-m Ω GaN devices will also be provided.
This application report discusses the Memory Power-On Self-Test (M-POST) feature available in select series of C2000 real-time controllers. The M-POST architecture enables parallel testing of multiple memories to reduce test time and is used for power-on testing of the memories on-chip.
C2000 devices are powerful 32-bit floating-point microcontroller units (MCU) designed for advanced closed-loop control applications such as motor control and power conversion control in industrial drives and automation, industrial power, solar, and electrical vehicle applications. In addition to the strong control performance offered by the MCU, it supports a host of functional safety features to support customers to design and certify their functionally safe systems. Memory Power-On Self-Test (M-POST) is an important enabler to test the device SRAMs and ROMs during device start-up. Based on customer one-time programmable (OTP) configurations, the test is executed automatically with the help of on-chip hardware during boot-up. When the test is executed, multiple memories are tested in parallel to reduce the impact on boot-time.
All DC/DC converters dissipate power in the form of heat. This heat has to be managed properly so that the converter maintains operation within the recommended temperature limits. Usually, the copper on the printed circuit board (PCB) is utilized to help dissipate the heat. This application note outlines a design procedure to quickly estimate the minimum required copper area on the PCB for a successful thermal design with DC/DC power modules.
The requirements for operational amplifiers and other ICs used in motor control systems have increased because of the need to extract higher performance from a motor while maintaining low system cost. Measuring motor current is an easy and inexpensive way to understand the torque and direction of the motor, so current sensing forms the backbone of many common motor control schemes for the three common DC motor types: stepper, brushed DC and brushless DC (BLDC).
The automotive experience demands the tools for manufacturers to create high-quality audio for the vehicle occupants, while also enabling those same occupants to customize audio settings for their desired tastes.
A myriad of audio input sources, including CD/DVD, radio, aux input, streaming music, Bluetooth® audio, navigation, alerts, and other notifications, routed to multiple output playback zones necessitates an audio subsystem tailored for the automotive audio market. TI’s Audio Post Processing Engine (APPE) on Jacinto devices provides a common audio framework for automotive OEMs to enable this user customization, while also allowing Tier 1 providers and OEMs to fine tune their audio for the best possible out-of-the-box user experience. By implementing audio processing algorithms and routing within TI’s C66x Digital Signal Processor (DSP) on Jacinto 6 DRA7x single chip solutions, automakers can reduce hardware system cost and integration complexity. This same audio solution can also be leveraged across multiple operating systems, such as QNX®, Linux®, and Android™. APPE provides real-time controls from the High-Level Operating System (HLOS), allowing customers with limited DSP experience to leverage a large suite of audio algorithms, including dynamic range compression, equalizers, mixers, and volume controls. Automotive manufacturers can also easily add additional algorithms to further differentiate their end platform.
RS-485 is one of the most widely used wired interface for industrial long-haul networks. TIA/EIA-485-A standard defines the physical layer of the RS-485 interface. End applications use RS-485 interface coupled with protocol such as Profibus, Modbus or BACnet.
The main benefits of this interface include:
Applications for RS-485 include Energy Meters, Grid Protection relay, Solar inverter, Factory automation, Motor control and Heating, ventilation, air conditioning (HVAC) systems.
This application report describes the video processing performed by the DLPC230-Q1 as part of the DLP5531-Q1 chipset to display an image optimized for automotive light control applications such as high resolution headlights and other exterior lighting products. Topics include image sequencing, illumination driving architecture, dithering, gamma correction, and image resizing which all impact the final output image. This information is intended for system designers involved in video content generation and illumination design.
TI applications engineers and software tools typically configure the parameters required to optimally display video in automotive light control end applications. However, an understanding of these background concepts can benefit designers working with the DLP® Products chipset.
The TPS25810 is a USB Type-C downstream facing port (DFP) controller that monitors the USB Type-C configuration channel (CC) lines to determine when a USB device is attached. When the upstream facing port (UFP) device Type C-to-B dongle is plugged in, the port supports connection of Type-B receptacle devices such as a mouse, smartphones, keyboards, external hard drives, and so forth. As these devices monitor the USB 2 data line (D+/D–), the TPS2544 USB charging port controller can be added to provide the electrical signatures on D+/D– to support BC1.2 and non-BC1.2 compliant charging schemes. This application note presents the design solution which offers fast charging of popular mobile phones, tablets, and media devices over the USB Type-C port.
This application report documents different tools and methods that are useful while debugging issues with the video capture subsystem on the Jacinto6™ (DRA7xx) family of system-on-chip (SoC). This can be used as a diagnostic test to root cause most common failures in the video capture use cases.
Residential smart meters are used for billing of electricity, gas, water, and heat. The technological advancements in these smart meters are being driven by the demand from utility companies to create a smarter and more efficient grid aimed at reducing non-revenue losses. More sensors are being added to collect more data about the status of the grid including pressure, temperature, etc. There is also a growing trend to incorporate higher precision measurements with newer technologies, such as ultrasonic flow measurements, which often end up adding to the overall complexity, reliability, and power consumption. These meters are also often part of radio-frequency (RF) communication networks that can draw a variable amount of power from the system depending on the required output power of their signal.
A common need of any system is controlling multiple devices through digital logic. Systems continue to move to lower voltage nodes for power savings. With this trend, using devices that are not natively compatible with the control logic of the system can lead to extra system costs through board size and BOM count. Also, the use of more components in the design of the system creates more opportunities for power sequencing issues. Using devices that have integrated support for the control logic of the system achieves a cost effective solution.
Smart door locks have gained incredible momentum in the last few years. This is mainly because security, privacy and reliable connectivity have become ubiquitous bringing clear benefits with an easy use case model. Similar to smart thermostats, security cameras, and garage door openers, smart door locks bring added value to the users providing the ability to monitor the status of entry ways, as well as, selectively grant access to service providers. This application report covers some of the more common use cases for smart door locks and discusses tradeoffs between the approaches.
With vehicle electrification increasing and as fully electric vehicles become more mainstream, the number of electric motors and digital power control systems in automobiles are expanding. Many of these systems require high-speed current monitoring circuits to ensure proper operation and to protect against potentially damaging overcurrent conditions. One of the most effective ways to accomplish this function is to employ a low side current shunt monitoring circuit.
This application report discusses how linear Hall effect sensors can be used to measure 2D angles, including both limited-angle and 360° rotation measurements. This report provides details on some calibrated and uncalibrated implementations to help meet angle measurement accuracy requirements. This report also covers the number of sensors needed, and the preferred magnet types for each method.
A recent trend has been seen in appliances (both large-home and small-home appliances) for moving from high-voltage (HV) motors to low-voltage (LV) motors for low power application (<100-W). This transition is due to availability of low power drivers which have the following advantages over high voltage systems.