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Application Notes

Simplify Voltage and Current Measurement in Battery Test Equipment

Texas Instruments

Battery test equipment is used to verify battery pack functionality and performance prior to shipment to the customer. This Tech Note outlines three major functional tests that a battery tester performs while showing how to achieve the desired level of regulated error.

Introduction to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

Texas Instruments

Magnetic Resonance Imaging is a non-invasive diagnostic technology that produces anatomical images. Unlike computed tomography (CT), MRI does not carry the risk of ionizing radiation exposure. The MRI system shown in this application note uses a superconducting magnet to align hydrogen atoms in the body; then excites the atoms with radio frequency (RF) energy from the transmitting RF coil. As the atoms return to equilibrium, energy is released in the form of radio waves which are recorded by the receiving RF coil. The rate at which the atoms return to equilibrium, as well as the energy released, is determined by the location and chemical makeup of the surrounding material. This information is processed to create images of the tissues present in the body.

Piezo Haptics With Integrated Waveforms: DRV2605L-Q1 and DRV2700

Texas Instruments

The DRV2700 is a high-voltage piezo driver with an analog input. This device is one of the many haptic feedback drivers that Texas Instruments offers. One design challenge many customers face using the DRV2700 is the analog input. Generating an analog input signal can burden the processor and be undesirable. This application note addresses this challenge and provides a solution.

PGA460-Q1 in Automotive Ultrasonic Kick-to-open Liftgate Systems (Rev. A)

Texas Instruments

Also known as a Smart Trunk Opener (STO), the kick-to-open trunk application has grown significantly over recent years, especially in SUVs and high-end passenger vehicles. This feature allows the vehicle owner hands-free access to open the trunk with a simple kicking motion near the rear bumper.

HiFi Audio Circuit Design

Texas Instruments

With the increase in personal electronic devices, HiFi audio is more popular than ever in many applications, such as smartphones, music players, home theaters, and even car infotainment. Many engineers and consumers devote themselves to the endless journey in HiFi audio. This document will help engineers understand, judge, design, and optimize a HiFi audio circuit.

Enabling HDMI over Type-C using TUSB564A-DCI

Texas Instruments

The TUSB546A-DCI is a linear redriver that supports both USB3.1 Gen1 and DisplayPort 1.4 over a USB Type-C interface. Even though the TUSB546A-DCI was released for the DisplayPort Alternate mode, the TUSB546A-DCI can also be used as a redriver in a USB-C HDMI Alternate mode source application. This document is intended to describe how to use the TUSB546A-DCI in a HDMI Type-C source application. The information in this document can also be applied to the TUSB546-DCI, TUSB1046-DCI, and TUSB1046A-DCI. For the remainder of the document TUSBx46 is used to describe all of these parts

Designing High Performance, Low-EMI, Automotive Power Supplies

Texas Instruments

From the adoption of driver-assistance cameras to the advancement of fuel efficiency, the intelligence of cars is constantly improving. With these new performance enhancements and their growing power demand, the automotive power management system is responsible for powering and protecting the downstream electronic components during nominal and transient conditions. This application report discusses the unique challenges to designing automotive power supplies.

Migrating to the SimpleLink MSP432 Family (Rev. D)

Texas Instruments

The 16-bit MSP430 and the 32-bit SimpleLink MSP432 microcontroller (MCU) families complement each other in low-power and performance. The goal of this migration guide is to help developers accurately assess the effort to migrate an existing application from the 16-bit MSP430 to the 32-bit SimpleLink MSP432 Arm platform if they so choose to. Ultimately, the migration guide is built to help derive a migration strategy with complete hardware and software coverage that properly migrates the existing application without introducing bugs due to platform differences while still taking advantage of the unique features or performance improvements that the 32-bit MSP432 devices bring.

LDO PSRR Measurement Simplified (Rev. A)

Texas Instruments

This application report explains different methods of measuring the Power Supply Rejection Ratio (PSRR) of a Low-Dropout (LDO) regulator and includes the pros and cons of these measuring methods.

Achieving Optimum Radio Range (Rev. A)

Texas Instruments

This application report addresses the parameters that affect the radio range. For identical radio settings, the range is highly dependent on the surroundings and environment. The link budget and the positioning of the antennas and their distance to the ground surface are major contributors to long range. A general specific range can never be specified or guaranteed for any type of radio communication unless the environment is well defined. Predicting a range is difficult and the excel sheet calculation helps to calculate a realistic range that can be achieved for a known environment.

EMI-Hardened Operational Amplifiers Reduce Inaccuracies

Texas Instruments

Operational amplifiers (op amps) with electromagnetic interference (EMI) filters can reduce significant errors. These types of errors are not always obvious to the system designers. They often impact the signal chain, in particular the analog-to-digital converter in the form of a loss of digital counts.

Single-Wire Communication Host With MSP430 MCUs

Texas Instruments

Several features commonly used in microcontroller (MCU) designs, such as external EEPROMs, SHA-1 authenticators, temperature sensors, digital switches, and battery system monitors, use a single bidirectional line to transfer data between itself and a master device. Commonly referred to as 1-wire or SDQ single-wire serial interfaces, this communication peripheral reduces the number of physical hardware connections required while adhering to a protocol that can be easily achieved with MSP430 MCUs acting as the function's master. Commands can be basic enough to operate with the MSP430FR2000 MCU, which contains 512 bytes of main memory, or expanded to service a multitude of operations and slave devices. A code example that demonstrates the initialization of such an interface is below. To get started, download project files and a code example demonstrating this functionality.

Power Gating Systems with Magnetic Sensors

Texas Instruments

Well-designed electronic systems only use as much power as they need to for each state of operation. While this is crucial for battery-powered systems, AC powered systems also benefit from minimizing power, since that reduces heat dissipation, maximizes the product lifetime, and conserves electricity.

Low-power modes work best when they seamlessly transition to a higher power mode without the user taking separate action. This full automation will be paramount to smart systems of the future. When the power mode can change based on some mechanical movement occurring, Hall effect sensors are often a suitable technology to be used.

MSP430FR6047 and Ultrasonic Software Based Water Flow Meter Measurement Results

Texas Instruments

This document summarizes the results of the measurements with the RevA MSP430FR6047 device with the ultrasonic software library for water flow meter.

Mounting Hardware and Quick Reference Guide for DLP Advanced Light Control DMDs

Texas Instruments

This Application Note is a reference guide for the Mounting Hardware of DLP Advanced Light Control (ALC) digital micromirror devices (DMD).

This guide briefly describes the DMD mounting hardware, including figures and tables for each DLP DMD. The figures show mounting concepts with their associated DMD mounting hardware parts. The tables list the individual mounting hardware parts, weblinks to the supplier’s ordering page (if applicable), and weblink to the dedicated “System Mounting Concepts” Application Report. This Quick Reference Guide comprehensively addresses the DMD Specifications and System Mounting Concepts and includes important application design considerations.

Barometric pressure sensor and use cases

Infineon Technologies AG

This document provides an overview of barometric pressure sensing, digital air pressure sensor and use cases.

The document is intended for Infineon customers who wish to develop applications based on DPS310 barometric pressure sensor.

Capacitive technology in wearable devices

Infineon Technologies AG

Low-power, high-accuracy pressure sensing for battery operated wearable devices

With more and more applications requiring high-accuracy atmospheric pressure data, engineers are seeking ever-more sensitive pressure sensing methods. New sensor technologies that are based on capacitive sensing enable engineers to create miniaturized and very accurate devices while satisfying demanding energy constraints and addressing reliability challenges.

Fitness monitoring wearables are a large part of a growing variety of products and applications require the high-accuracy sensing of static and dynamic air pressure. As these applications are typically found in batteryoperated devices, it is also essential to combine the high accuracy with optimized low-power operation and reliability across a broad range of operating conditions.

Many existing small form-factor MEMS (Micro Electro-Mechanical System) pressure sensors are built around piezo-resistive measurement techniques. In these cases, the flexing of a diaphragm in relation to changes in pressure is sensed via a strain sensor. However, piezo-resistive sensing elements are particularly susceptible to variation with temperature changes and they do not respond linearly to temperature. For this reason, piezoresistive sensors have a need for more complex calibration compared to a capacitive element. In addition, resistive measurement can represent a significant drain on power – a particularly important consideration when the target application is battery-powered and operating lifetime is critical.

By Sampo Härkönen, Senior Manager Pressure Sensor Marketing, Infineon Technologies

Download and read the full whitepaper below.

Internet of Moving Things ebook

Mouser Electronics

Welcome from the Editor

The 1939–40 New York World’s Fair was the first of its kind to feature the future, with exhibits from around the world that allowed visitors to look at “the world of tomorrow.” At that Fair, more than 44 million people attended one particularly influential exhibit and ride: Norman Bel Geddes’ Futurama, which prophesized an American utopia with streamlined vehicles, cutting-edge technologies, and a built environment that would ultimately reform society.

Over the past 70 years, we’ve seen in hindsight that Bel Geddes’ masterpiece may not have gotten every detail correct. The advances haven’t come as quickly as Geddes thought, of course; by the 1960s, ads were still touting driverless cars of the future, and it’s only been recently that autonomous vehicles have begun testing in various areas.

However, Bel Geddes Futurama display illustrated what we still aim to do: Harness the technologies and ideas we have today to present a “new and clearer view of today in preparation for tomorrow.” In this eBook, we put autonomous vehicles smackdab in the middle of connected infrastructure and emphasize the Internet of Moving Things — where IoT meets mobility — because this intersection poses some of the most demanding and interesting design challenges.

Think of all of the solutions we design… To store, analyze, and gain insights from big data; to govern technologies and develop standards; to provide speed, security, privacy, and ease-of-use; to accommodate a plethora of data formats, devices, and populations; to make urban living more efficient, cost-effective, and more environmentally friendly; and to keep up with a continuously-changing technological landscape. Well, these solutions will soon be on the move, zipping along in a streamlined, tailored, and self-driving vehicle; connecting to other vehicles, infrastructure, and people; and changing the way people work and live.

Many visionaries since that fateful World’s Fair have demonstrated that streamlined, tailored, autonomous vehicles at the center of a built environment will ultimately reform life and work as we’ve known it. With the ingenuity and courage of those who came before us — and who currently work with us — we’ve made significant headway. In what ways will technologies continue to evolve to reach this dream? That’s up to you.

Norman Bel Geddes will be proud.

Deborah S. Ray
Editor, Mouser Electronics

Download and read the full ebook below.

High-Speed Interface Layout Guidelines (Rev. G)

Texas Instruments

As modern bus interface frequencies scale higher, care must be taken in the printed circuit board (PCB) layout phase of a design to ensure a robust solution.

Temperature Sensors: PCB Guidelines for Surface Mount Devices

Texas Instruments

Power hungry electronic components such as CPUs, GPUs, or FPGAs, as well as voltage regulators heat up during operation. Some applications require ambient air temperature measurements while others need to measure the temperature of a nearby component on the PCB. Measuring ambient air temperature with a surface mount technology (SMT) device is challenging due to the thermal influence of other components within the system. In other systems, in which the temperature of a component needs to be measured, ambient air temperature can influence and degrade the measurement accuracy. The system designer needs to make certain design decisions regarding both package type and PCB layout when integrating a temperature sensor.

This application note provides recommendations to system designers and explains methods for improving the accuracy of the temperature point being measured. The Recommendations are provided both for air temperature measurements and for component temperature measurement. The report details layout techniques, device orientation, and best practices for mounting.

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Reference Designs


Texas Instruments

Smart Thermostat Localized Heat Compensation for Ambient Temperature Sensing Reference Design


Texas Instruments

EtherCAT P® One Cable for Power and EtherCAT® Reference Design


Texas Instruments

LED-Lighting Control Reference Design for Machine Vision