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Application Notes

Clocking for Medical Ultrasound Systems

Texas Instruments

This application note discusses the importance of clocking in Ultrasound and also illustrates how some key TI devices achieve very low end to end jitter and phase noise. The application note also demonstrates how various stages have very low additive jitter.

Current Sense Amplifiers in Class-D Audio Subsystems

Texas Instruments

CLASS-D audio amplifiers provide output power with an efficiency of over 90% as compared to CLASS-AB amplifiers that can provide an output efficiency of <50%. CLASS-D amplifiers are implemented in portable personal audio systems that provide quality sound output enabling longer battery life. A widely used CLASS-D amplifier in automotive systems are for E-call systems that provide critical audio feedback to the driver in case of a driver emergency. In E-call systems discrete current sensing is often implemented for continuous diagnostics to ensure speaker is operational at all times.

Simplifying 4K SDI Video Design with a Bidirectional I/O

Texas Instruments

In 4K serial digital interface (SDI) video designs, flexibility, scalability, and cost savings are essential to maximize design reuse and develop an extensive 12G-SDI portfolio. A bidirectional input/output (I/O) addresses these critical needs. This application note explains how the features and diagnostic tools of the LMH1297 12G-SDI bidirectional I/O enable various SDI design benefits. This application note also provides several application examples where the LMH1297's versatility simplifies 4K video design.

SimpleLink Wi-Fi Enabled Electronic Smart Lock

Texas Instruments

This application report describes the development of Wi-Fi enabled electronic smart locks (e-locks). Specifically, the benefits of adding Wi-Fi to an e-lock design are examined.

Different Wi-Fi use cases are presented along with an estimate of system battery life for two main use cases. This application report demonstrates that SimpleLink Wi-Fi makes it possible to create a battery powered e-lock design that can be securely monitored and controlled from the cloud.

Enabling the Next Generation of Automotive Head-Up Display Systems

Texas Instruments

Texas Instruments has developed automotive grade DLP technology that enables highly-efficient, nextgeneration, full-color, true augmented reality (AR) automotive head-up display (HUD) systems. The uniqueness of DLP technology makes it possible to solve common design challenges of head-up display systems including managing environmental extremes and sunlight thermal loading, delivering high brightness and high resolution, and implementing dynamic dimming capabilities. Additionally, DLP projection-based architecture provides flexibility in the optical design needed to create very large field of view virtual displays over the road that augment and assist the driver. This paper includes a brief overview of DLP solid state illumination operation and how the implementation of DLP technology can solve the common HUD design challenges. DLP technology can be used to create advanced solutions for true automotive AR HUD applications.

Ethernet PHY Configuration Using MDIO for Industrial Applications

Texas Instruments

As a bridge of the link layer device medium access controller (MAC) and physical medium such as copper cable, the Ethernet physical layer device (PHY) integrates all the physical-layer functions needed to transmit and receive data on standard twisted-pair cables. Proper PHY configuration using management data input/output (MDIO) is fundamental during the prototype stage, and also crucial to meeting the requirements of lowest deterministic latency and fastest link detection in industrial Ethernet applications such as EtherCAT. This application report provides guidance on the Ethernet PHY configuration using the MDIO module within the Programmable-Realtime Unit Industrial Communications Sub-System (PRUICSS) in the Sitara device from TI, for industrial applications, by dissecting the PHY DP83822 configuration in EtherCAT on the AMIC110 Industrial Communications Engine (ICE). The goal of this application report is to expedite the development of industrial Ethernet applications on custom boards with migration and troubleshooting guides for the PHYs.

AN-1432 The LM4935 Headset/Push-Button Detection Guide (Rev. A)

Texas Instruments

The LM4935 features an advanced headset detection scheme that can sense the insertion or removal of any type of available headset.

TRF7970A NFC Reader Antenna Multiplexing

Texas Instruments

This application report describes the implementation of multiple reader antennas with a single TRF7970A NFC transceiver IC. For demonstration purposes, the MSP430F5529 LaunchPad development kit with TRF7970A BoosterPack plug-in module are used. The PE42359 UltraCMOS RF Switch from Peregrine Semiconductors is used for switching due to its simple control methodology and low power loss during switching. The demo supports ISO/IEC 15693, ISO/IEC 14443A, and ISO/IEC 14443B communication protocols.

This application report describes a simple demo of antenna multiplexing that can help when using the TRF7970A in applications with multiple antennas. This application report is an addition to the advanced demo for multiplexing 16 antennas that is described in TRF7960A RFID Multiplexer Example System (SLOA167). This application report uses an alternative switching device and an easier control strategy. The control algorithm can be easily written and added to the existing firmware.

Efficient MSP430 Code Synthesis for an FIR Filter

Texas Instruments

Digital filtering can be easily accomplished on the MSP430 using efficient multiplication. The tool accompanying this document automatically converts FIR filter coefficients to MSP430 assembly code that can be used in any application. Horner’s method and CSD format is used to accomplish the efficient multiply operations. The performance of the filter on the MSP430 is shown by evaluating the gain across all frequencies. Performance in terms of CPU cycles, code size, and frequency response of low-pass, high-pass, band-pass, band-stop, and notch filters on the MSP430 is shown in Appendix A.

Using TI's DLMS COSEM Library

Texas Instruments

This application report describes in detail the usage of DLMS COSEM library developed by Texas Instruments for customers who use TI’s microcontrollers in metering applications. The library is provided as object coded with a configuration file for ease of use. The library can be obtained by contacting the regional sales and marketing offices. The customer will have to sign an SLA before getting access to the library.

Synchronizing Three or More UCC28950 Phase-Shifted, Full-Bridge Controllers

Texas Instruments

One of the key features of the UCC28950 phase-shifted, full-bridge controller is its ability to synchronize its main oscillator to an external clock source. In this way, multiple controllers can be synchronized to improve performance criteria of the end power supply. This application report expands the details of the synchronization capability of the UCC28950, provides examples of simple circuits used to generate the proper clock inputs to the UCC28950, and gives examples of the input and output signaling that can be expected with three- and four-phase applications.

How to Develop a Project with TI SYS/BIOS

Texas Instruments

TI SYS/BIOS is a real-time operating system kernel. It is also a component of TI RTOS. TI RTOS is an integration system; it includes TI SYS/BIOS kernel, XDCtools, middleware, MCU driver library, and other kinds of components.

TI-RTOS is a one-stop solution for developing applications for TI embedded processors and is tightly integrated with TI’s Code Composer Studio™ (CCS) development environment.

TI-RTOS also provides many example project packages with which you may start to develop a project with TI SYS/BIOS.

How to reduce current spikes at AC zero-crossing for totem-pole PFC

Texas Instruments

Power factor correction (PFC) is widely used in AC/DC power supplies with an input power of 75 watts or greater. PFC forces the input current to follow the input voltage so that any electrical load appears like a resistor. Amongst all the different PFC topologies, the totem-pole PFC has recently received more attention because it uses the least number of components, has the smallest conduction loss, and has the highest efficiency. Typically, a totem-pole PFC cannot operate in continuous-conduction mode (CCM) because of the slow reverse recovery of the MOSFET’s body diodes. However, with the advent of the galliumnitride (GaN) FET, its diode-free structure makes the CCM totem-pole PFC possible.

Five steps to a great PCB layout for a step-down converter

Texas Instruments

Especially for switch-mode power supplies (SMPSs), the printed circuit board (PCB) layout is a critical but often under appreciated step in achieving proper performance and reliability. Errors in the PCB layout cause a variety of misbehaviors including poor output voltage regulation, switching jitter, and even device failure. Issues like these should be avoided at all costs, since fixing them usually requires a PCB design modification. However, these pitfalls are easily circumvented if time and thought are spent during the PCB layout process before the first PCBs are ever ordered.

This article presents five simple steps to ensure that your next step-down converter’s PCB layout is robust and ready for prototyping.

How to Calculate TPS92630-Q1 Maximum Output Current for Automotive Exterior Ligh

Texas Instruments

This application report provides the method of calculating the maximum output current of the TPS92630-Q1 device in exterior-lighting automotive applications. The junction-to-ambient thermal resistance (RθJA) of the TPS92630-Q1 device is the key parameter when calculating the maximum output current of the TPS92630-Q1 device. This application report provides a method about how to measure the RθJA of TPS92630-Q1 reference boards. The reference boards are fabricated with different copper thickness. A comparison table of both measured and simulated RθJA of different copper thickness is given in the report for correlation.

Introduction to Ultrasound

Texas Instruments

Medical and industrial ultrasound systems use focal imaging techniques to achieve imaging performance far beyond a single-channel approach. Ultrasound images are created by sending high voltage pulses into human tissue. The sound generated by these pulses echoes off of the tissues at varying amplitudes depending on factors such as depth within the body and type of tissue. Ultrasound technology is manufactured to measure the voltage magnitude of these echoes as they are collected at the receiver. These voltages are ultimately recorded and displayed in an image that tells what kinds of surfaces the pulses are passing through.

Incremental Rotary Encoder Design Considerations

Texas Instruments

Incremental rotary encoders transduce rotational movement into electrical signals. Unlike absolute encoders that measure angle, incremental encoders generate high/low pulses as turning occurs.

Applications include computer mouse wheels, fluid flow meters, knobs, wheel speed sensors, stepper motor feedback for detecting missed steps, and brushed DC motor sensors for automotive windows, sunroofs, seats, and mirrors.

Thermocouple Temperature Measurements Using Isolated Amplifiers (Rev. A)

Texas Instruments

The most common thermocouple in use today is the Type K. A Type-K thermocouple is inexpensive, accurate, and works reliably in harsh environments. Type-K thermocouples can measure temperatures ranging from –200°C to +1250°C and have a Seebeck coefficient of S = 41 μV/K at room temperature.

PGA460 Full-Bridge Driver Solutions for Ultrasonic Transducers

Texas Instruments

This document offers various implementations to achieve a full-bridge driver to excite an ultrasonic transducer when using the PGA460. Because the PGA460 was only designed to excite transducers in the transformer-driven or half-bridge driver modes, external circuitry is required to enable a full-bridge driver. The recommended solution is based on combining the functionality of the PGA460 with the DRV8870 to enable the excitation voltage to swing between ±45 V. Low-cost discrete alternatives are also discussed.

Capacitive Touch Through Metal Using MSP430™ MCUs With CapTIvate™ Technology (Rev. A)

Texas Instruments

MSP430 microcontrollers (MCUs) with CapTIvate technology from Texas Instruments provide a high-sensitivity capacitive touch solution with high reliability and noise immunity at the lowest power. This application report demonstrates a new capacitive touch application through metal overlays using CapTIvate technology. Microscopic movements in a flat metal can be sensed and processed to determine how hard a given button was pressed due to the high sensitivity and resolution of TI's technique. This approach allows reuse of existing metal surfaces commonly found in many applications such as building security systems, appliances, and consumer electronics. The document describes the fundamentals of TI's CapTIvate technology-based metal touch technique and provides guidance on how to design a touch on metal panel with MSP430 MCUs featuring CapTIvate technology. Applications and noise immunity considerations are also discussed in this document. This application report assumes that readers are reasonably familiar with elementary capacitive touch principles, CapTIvate technology, and MSP430 microcontroller architecture.

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