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Application Notes

Power Gating Systems with Magnetic Sensors

Texas Instruments

Well-designed electronic systems only use as much power as they need to for each state of operation. While this is crucial for battery-powered systems, AC powered systems also benefit from minimizing power, since that reduces heat dissipation, maximizes the product lifetime, and conserves electricity.

Low-power modes work best when they seamlessly transition to a higher power mode without the user taking separate action. This full automation will be paramount to smart systems of the future. When the power mode can change based on some mechanical movement occurring, Hall effect sensors are often a suitable technology to be used.

MSP430FR6047 and Ultrasonic Software Based Water Flow Meter Measurement Results

Texas Instruments

This document summarizes the results of the measurements with the RevA MSP430FR6047 device with the ultrasonic software library for water flow meter.

Mounting Hardware and Quick Reference Guide for DLP Advanced Light Control DMDs

Texas Instruments

This Application Note is a reference guide for the Mounting Hardware of DLP Advanced Light Control (ALC) digital micromirror devices (DMD).

This guide briefly describes the DMD mounting hardware, including figures and tables for each DLP DMD. The figures show mounting concepts with their associated DMD mounting hardware parts. The tables list the individual mounting hardware parts, weblinks to the supplier’s ordering page (if applicable), and weblink to the dedicated “System Mounting Concepts” Application Report. This Quick Reference Guide comprehensively addresses the DMD Specifications and System Mounting Concepts and includes important application design considerations.

Barometric pressure sensor and use cases

Infineon Technologies AG

This document provides an overview of barometric pressure sensing, digital air pressure sensor and use cases.

The document is intended for Infineon customers who wish to develop applications based on DPS310 barometric pressure sensor.

Internet of Moving Things ebook

Mouser Electronics

Welcome from the Editor

The 1939–40 New York World’s Fair was the first of its kind to feature the future, with exhibits from around the world that allowed visitors to look at “the world of tomorrow.” At that Fair, more than 44 million people attended one particularly influential exhibit and ride: Norman Bel Geddes’ Futurama, which prophesized an American utopia with streamlined vehicles, cutting-edge technologies, and a built environment that would ultimately reform society.

Over the past 70 years, we’ve seen in hindsight that Bel Geddes’ masterpiece may not have gotten every detail correct. The advances haven’t come as quickly as Geddes thought, of course; by the 1960s, ads were still touting driverless cars of the future, and it’s only been recently that autonomous vehicles have begun testing in various areas.

However, Bel Geddes Futurama display illustrated what we still aim to do: Harness the technologies and ideas we have today to present a “new and clearer view of today in preparation for tomorrow.” In this eBook, we put autonomous vehicles smackdab in the middle of connected infrastructure and emphasize the Internet of Moving Things — where IoT meets mobility — because this intersection poses some of the most demanding and interesting design challenges.

Think of all of the solutions we design… To store, analyze, and gain insights from big data; to govern technologies and develop standards; to provide speed, security, privacy, and ease-of-use; to accommodate a plethora of data formats, devices, and populations; to make urban living more efficient, cost-effective, and more environmentally friendly; and to keep up with a continuously-changing technological landscape. Well, these solutions will soon be on the move, zipping along in a streamlined, tailored, and self-driving vehicle; connecting to other vehicles, infrastructure, and people; and changing the way people work and live.

Many visionaries since that fateful World’s Fair have demonstrated that streamlined, tailored, autonomous vehicles at the center of a built environment will ultimately reform life and work as we’ve known it. With the ingenuity and courage of those who came before us — and who currently work with us — we’ve made significant headway. In what ways will technologies continue to evolve to reach this dream? That’s up to you.

Norman Bel Geddes will be proud.

Deborah S. Ray
Editor, Mouser Electronics

Download and read the full ebook below.

Capacitive technology in wearable devices

Infineon Technologies AG

Low-power, high-accuracy pressure sensing for battery operated wearable devices

With more and more applications requiring high-accuracy atmospheric pressure data, engineers are seeking ever-more sensitive pressure sensing methods. New sensor technologies that are based on capacitive sensing enable engineers to create miniaturized and very accurate devices while satisfying demanding energy constraints and addressing reliability challenges.

Fitness monitoring wearables are a large part of a growing variety of products and applications require the high-accuracy sensing of static and dynamic air pressure. As these applications are typically found in batteryoperated devices, it is also essential to combine the high accuracy with optimized low-power operation and reliability across a broad range of operating conditions.

Many existing small form-factor MEMS (Micro Electro-Mechanical System) pressure sensors are built around piezo-resistive measurement techniques. In these cases, the flexing of a diaphragm in relation to changes in pressure is sensed via a strain sensor. However, piezo-resistive sensing elements are particularly susceptible to variation with temperature changes and they do not respond linearly to temperature. For this reason, piezoresistive sensors have a need for more complex calibration compared to a capacitive element. In addition, resistive measurement can represent a significant drain on power – a particularly important consideration when the target application is battery-powered and operating lifetime is critical.

By Sampo Härkönen, Senior Manager Pressure Sensor Marketing, Infineon Technologies

Download and read the full whitepaper below.

High Speed Layout Guidelines (Rev. A)

Texas Instruments

This application report addresses high-speed signals, such as clock signals and their routing, and gives designers a review of the important coherences. With some simple rules, electromagnetic interference problems can be minimized without using complicated formulas and expensive simulation tools. Section 1 gives a short introduction to theory, while Section 2 focuses on practical PCB design rules. Either section can be read independently.

Comparing Bus Solutions (Rev. C)

Texas Instruments

The strong interest in this application report prompted this third edition. In addition to the changes and updates made throughout these sections, this edition also discusses Local Interconnect Network (LIN), USB-On-the-Go, DisplayPort, digital isolators, and more. This application report serves as a reference tool for finding the most appropriate data bus solution for today ’s advanced system architectures. It gives an overview of the different bus solutions available from Texas Instruments. Designers can use many different solutions to solve the same problem. The task is to identify the optimum solution for their application.

This application report makes it easier for designers to do this. It has sections on data transmission fundamentals, data line drivers and receivers, data links, and data signaling conditioners. Subsections discuss the electrical properties, applicability, and features of each product family.

Temperature Sensors: PCB Guidelines for Surface Mount Devices

Texas Instruments

Power hungry electronic components such as CPUs, GPUs, or FPGAs, as well as voltage regulators heat up during operation. Some applications require ambient air temperature measurements while others need to measure the temperature of a nearby component on the PCB. Measuring ambient air temperature with a surface mount technology (SMT) device is challenging due to the thermal influence of other components within the system. In other systems, in which the temperature of a component needs to be measured, ambient air temperature can influence and degrade the measurement accuracy. The system designer needs to make certain design decisions regarding both package type and PCB layout when integrating a temperature sensor.

This application note provides recommendations to system designers and explains methods for improving the accuracy of the temperature point being measured. The Recommendations are provided both for air temperature measurements and for component temperature measurement. The report details layout techniques, device orientation, and best practices for mounting.

Common Noise Issues in Audio Codecs

Texas Instruments

This application note describes methods that can be used to improve noise performance in systems using audio codecs. Noise is present in all circuit board systems; however, common design practices can help minimize overall noise contribution to improve the audio quality using audio codecs. Recommendations in this document apply to the TLV320AICxxxx, TLV320ADCxxxx, and TLV320DACxxxx audio converter families. Some information in this document may be used to reduce noise in other audio converter devices as well.

High-Speed Interface Layout Guidelines (Rev. G)

Texas Instruments

As modern bus interface frequencies scale higher, care must be taken in the printed circuit board (PCB) layout phase of a design to ensure a robust solution.

Digital Filter Types in Delta-Sigma ADCs

Texas Instruments

This application report discusses digital filters which are a ubiquitous feature in delta-sigma analog to digital converters (ADCs). Digital low-pass filters are essential to the functionality of a delta-sigma ADC, which relies on oversampling and noise shaping to push quantization noise out of band. There are variations between the types of digital filters used in delta-sigma ADCs that provide various benefits and drawbacks that orient them to different applications. The types of filters and the tradeoffs between them are discussed in this report.

Isolated RS485 to RS485

Texas Instruments

This application note presents the idea of achieving all-port isolation in an existing non-isolated RS-485-to-RS-485 communication link without delving into the details of the protocol between the nodes.

Rotation Detection With the MSP430 Scan Interface (Rev. B)

Texas Instruments

This application report details the measurement principles for using an LC sensor to detect rotational movement. Based on this measurement principle, an example project is presented demonstrating contactless rotational measurement using the Scan Interface (Scan IF) of the MSP430FW42x family of devices. Software as well as hardware for the implementation is explained.

Full-Scale Current Adjustment Using a Digital-to-Analog Converter (DAC)

Texas Instruments

The ability to dynamically control current in an inductive load system is very important for stepper motor designs where different levels of torque control are desired. This adjustment feature can also be used to improve system efficiency by reducing the motor current in low-load situations, achieving a longer battery life.

This application report is provided as a supplement to the data sheet for the DRV8884, DRV8885, DRV8886 and DRV8886AT motor drivers. The goal of this document is to show how to achieve accurate current regulation in normal and low-power modes using different methods. This document also describes different sources of error in these configurations, how to minimize these errors, and the key factors to consider when doing a design.

Design Considerations for LM5113 Advanced eGaN FET Driver at High Frequency Operation

Texas Instruments

The LM5113 device is designed to drive the high-side and low-side enhancement mode Gallium Nitride (GaN) FETs in a half-bridge configuration. The floating high-side gate is capable of driving enhancement mode GaN FETs up to 100 V. Used with the DSBGA package the LM5113 device is especially suited for high-frequency operation. Care must be taken at high-frequency operation to ensure that adequate thermal design tolerance is present for the worst-case driver power dissipation. Furthermore, a good understanding of the driver losses for different load mechanisms is very helpful in estimating the on die power loss in the GaN driver. This application report demonstrates the operation of LM5113 device at high-frequency for hard-switching and soft-switching applications. It also provides an estimate of the losses in the driver based on calculations and an analytical approach.

DMD 101: Introduction to Digital Micromirror Device (DMD) Technology (Rev. A)

Texas Instruments

This document describes the basic structure and operation of the digital micromirror device (DMD) array.

This document covers the basic structure and operation of DMD devices. The DMD is a unique combination of opto-mechanical and electro-mechanical elements. The journey begins with understanding how one pixel works and building on that to encompass the entire array of pixels that comprise a DMD.

Implementation of a Low-Cost Three-Phase Watt-Hour Meter Using the MSP430F67641 (Rev. C)

Texas Instruments

This application report describes the implementation of a low-cost three-phase electronic electricity meter using the Texas Instruments MSP430F67641 metering processor. This application report includes the necessary information with regard to metrology software and hardware procedures for this single-chip implementation.

Transient Response versus Ripple - An Analysis of Ripple Injection Techniques

Texas Instruments

In this application note we highlight the implications of ripple injection techniques, aimed at minimizing output ripple voltage, on the transient response of a supply. The results help choose a suitable ripple injection technique after striking a balance between the output ripple voltage and the transient response required by the load.

A USB-Powered Lithium-Ion Battery Charger

Texas Instruments

The Universal Serial Bus has become one of the most widespread and convenient ways to connect electronic devices to the PC. Countless modern portable products with built-in USB connectors readily use the USB data bus to transmit and receive data to and from PCs, but many of these battery-powered units still use a separate power supply for battery charging (often a charging cradle or a simple AC/DC converter). Sometimes overshadowed by its data bus partner, each USB connection also contains a power bus. With a maximum power rating 5.25V/500 mA, the USB power bus is a great source for charging a single-cell Lithium-Ion battery.

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