Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) is an unwanted coupling of signals from one circuit or system to another. EMI is separated into two different categories: conducted and radiated. Conducted EMI is a form of conduction coupling caused by parasitic impedance, power and ground connections. Radiated EMI is the coupling of unwanted signals from radio transmission. This application note covers the EMI performance of several different techniques using both printed circuit board (PCB) layout changes and additional external circuitry using the LMZM23601 step-down power module. The PCB layouts in this experiment include the following: original LMZM23601 EVM, EVM with top layer shielding, perimeter fencing with vias, via stitching, and input/output via fencing. Two additional alternative techniques used to mitigate EMI noise are the high frequency(HF) bypass capacitor modification and an input filter design.
Large-screen HDTVs are selling in huge volumes over last few years, primarily driven by amazing improvements in picture quality & form factor (thinner screens). The form factor constraints from having skinny screens result in tiny built-in speakers that are undersized, under-powered and are typically aimed at wrong direction. Hence sound bars have exploded in popularity as complementary audio system by providing a sound experience that more closely matches the TV’s life-like pictures. In addition, with release of HDMI 2.1 specification we finally have a no compromise audio solution for HDMI as part of the eARC [enhanced Audio Return Channel]. One of the most important functions the eARC enables is sending audio signal both “upstream” and “downstream” over a single connection. As a result, with eARC the full resolution sound signals can be passed back and forth between your TV and audio systems with ease and without compromising sound quality.
This application report helps TI mmWave Radar sensor designers navigate the series of tasks and key concerns when designing, manufacturing and validating a new mmWave sensor board. This document is only concerned with the RF portions of the design. It is beneficial for PCB designers that do not have experience with RF PCB design at mmWave frequencies. This document is applicable to sensor designs using IWR/ AWR mmWave Radar chips.
HSR/PRP is Ethernet based communication technology commonly deployed in smart grid substation for low cost, easy to maintain and interoperable common network infrastructure with built-in redundancy. This application report presents the overview of HSR/PRP technology followed by HSR/PRP solutions on Sitara devices. TI’s PRU-ICSS technology with features like real-time and determinism allows Sitara devices to offer HSR/PRP solution. HSR/PRP solution is available as part of Processor SDK for Linux and RTOS.
This document points to various collateral and resources available for customers to quick ramp on HSR/PRP solution on Sitara devices including PRU-ICSS technology.
The LED171596A is an LED matrix driver that can individually control up to 96 LEDs. To control the 96 LEDs it uses four high-side PMOS switches and 24 low-side programmable current sinks. The driver has 9-bit duty cycle and 8-bit current control of each low side LED current sink. They can be individually controlled through the I2C-compatible or SPI interface. The individual LED brightness is internally multiplied with a global brightness-register value. This allows the control of all the LEDs at once with a single register or PWM input signal. This global brightness also passes through a brightness sloper function to create optically smooth brightness transitions without the need for multiple register writes.
The interior permanent-magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM) for variable speed applications became popular with the sensorless Field Oriented Control (FOC) technique in industrial and automotive systems because of high power density, high efficiency and fast dynamic performance. This application report describes how to implement a flux-weakening logic and maximum torque per ampere (MTPA) logic in an InstaSPIN-FOC™ sensorless FOC solution based on the MotorWare™ software platform.
This FAQ describes the ADC-based correlation techniques for time-of-flight measurements used in ultrasonic-sensing technology for flow metering. This document describes the design and engineering trade-offs when designing using the MSP430FR604x microcontrollers (MCUs), software based on the Ultrasonic Design Center, and key performance metrics.
CAN interface has been a very popular serial communication standard in the industry due to its excellent prioritization and arbitration capabilities. In systems with different voltage domains, isolation is typically used to protect the low voltage side from the high voltage side in case of any faults. Isolation also breaks any ground loops allowing only the desired signals to be transmitted, thereby improving signal quality.
Isolated CAN is used for communication with the microcontroller in a wide range of applications such as solar inverters, circuit breakers, motor drives, PLC communication modules, telecom rectifiers, elevators, HVACs and EV charging infrastructures.
To ensure reliability during events like power switching, hot plugs, lightning, and various other fault situations, systems must account for surge protection; however, most common surge-protection TVS diodes have significant variation over temperatures that is rarely accounted for. This variation can lead to failures in released products that were not seen in lab testing; to minimize these failures, TVS diode performance must be understood and accounted for. This report examines the temperature variation in conventional SMA and SMB type TVS diodes and compares them to the TI Flat-Clamp surge protection, and then shows laboratory testing in a real-world system that highlights the improved high-temperature performance of the TI Flat-Clamp devices.
The RF sampling architecture is the main communication architecture in the telecom industry due to its improved system flexibility, higher signal bandwidth, higher density, and lower cost. This document will briefly introduce the architecture of the RF sampling receiver and the block diagram of the RF analog-to-digital converter (ADC). The goal of this document is to identify spurs generated after the RF sampling, like the harmonic spur and interleaving spur. In addition, the effect of the spurs due to the numerically controlled oscillator (NCO) and decimation are discussed in this document.
This application report describes how to build a digital heart-rate monitor using a MSP430FG439 microcontroller (MCU). The heartbeat rate per minute is displayed on an LCD. In addition, the application outputs a digital data stream through an RS232 serial port to allow display of the EKG waveform on a PC. The entire application runs using a CR2032 3-V lithium battery.
This application note introduces features and performance of TI’s first Network Synchronizer Clock device, LMK05028. The application note highlights the device's unique 3-loop architecture, Hitless Switching with Phase Cancellation, 1 PPS Phase Lock, Zero Delay Mode, and Robust Reference Detector, and discusses their value adds in several applications, including wired communications (Switches, Routers and Optical Transport Networks), wireless communication (Base Band Unit), and industrial applications, such as smart grids, medical imaging, and broadcast video. In these applications, the LMK05028 operates as a high-performance clock generator and jitter cleaner with Programmable Loop Bandwidth, while also offering network synchronization with support for Synchronous Ethernet (SyncE) and IEEE 1588.
The TPS54331 is a non-synchronous buck converter that integrates a low RDS(on) high side MOSFET and is designed to provide up to a 3A output from an input voltage source of 3.5 V to 28 V. This application note explains the procedure of converting a simple buck converter into a CC/CV charger with low component count for charging a SMF Lead Acid Battery. This concept can be extended to multiple parts in the same family.
This application report offers a ready-made solution for GPS tracking with CC13xx devices, and includes a Python script that will plot data points onto Google Maps. This application can be used for various device tracking or range testing and evaluation.
Digital Input receivers are used in AC and servo motor control to interface various 24-V signals to the control module of the drive. These signals include inputs from field sensors and switches, position and speed feedback encoded as 24-V signals, clock or PWM inputs for speed control, and emergency stop signals, such as Safe Torque Off (STO). Isolation is used to manage ground potential differences.
This application note includes an object versus range table to list the detection range capabilities of TI’s mmWave radar sensors. The method used for data collection is reported and the data for the maximum range recording for each objects is provided. Intuitions that can be gained from the table regarding radar cross section and maximum range detection are included.
The Thunderbolt Alternate Mode allows the two sides of a USB Type-C PD connection to discover, negotiate, and enter the Intel Thunderbolt 3 mode allowing transfer of high-speed data. The mode is negotiated using USB Power Delivery messaging, as listed in the USB PD specification. This application report explains the standard implementation of the Thunderbolt Alternate Mode and how it can be used with the Texas Instruments TPS6598x family of USB Type-C and USB PD controllers and associated software tools.
This application note discusses the importance of clocking in Ultrasound and also illustrates how some key TI devices achieve very low end to end jitter and phase noise. The application note also demonstrates how various stages have very low additive jitter.
CLASS-D audio amplifiers provide output power with an efficiency of over 90% as compared to CLASS-AB amplifiers that can provide an output efficiency of <50%. CLASS-D amplifiers are implemented in portable personal audio systems that provide quality sound output enabling longer battery life. A widely used CLASS-D amplifier in automotive systems are for E-call systems that provide critical audio feedback to the driver in case of a driver emergency. In E-call systems discrete current sensing is often implemented for continuous diagnostics to ensure speaker is operational at all times.
In 4K serial digital interface (SDI) video designs, flexibility, scalability, and cost savings are essential to maximize design reuse and develop an extensive 12G-SDI portfolio. A bidirectional input/output (I/O) addresses these critical needs. This application note explains how the features and diagnostic tools of the LMH1297 12G-SDI bidirectional I/O enable various SDI design benefits. This application note also provides several application examples where the LMH1297's versatility simplifies 4K video design.